Showing posts with label instrumentation. Show all posts
Showing posts with label instrumentation. Show all posts

Compact and Ultrafast Response Temperature Transmitters: The IFM TA2

TA2 temperature instrumentTraditional temperature sensors are constructed from multiple components, assembled and calibrated together. The assembly and calibration of the components is time consuming and requires a high level of skill. These temperature instrument assemblies, due to their open design, are susceptible to moisture, corrosion and other environmental conditions which are a major cause for instrument stress.  Furthermore, periodic maintenance for verification of calibration is needed, adding costs that directly affect profitability.

IFM's innovative TA2 temperature instrument solves this problem. Constructed of 316 stainless steel, this fully laser welded,  one piece hermetically sealed instrument is rated IP69K. There are no points of ingress to cause drift or damage the sensor and they are fully calibrated during manufacture and ready to use right out of the box. The sensor is pre-scaled in various popular ranges and fully scaleable to custom ranges using the IO-Link communication and programming tool.

With a compact 3-1/4" diameter and 1-1/2" long housing, the TA2 installs into the tightest locations. A bright led located in the M12 connector gives visible indication that the sensor is operational. Wiring is conventional 2-wire loop power for easy installation.

The IFM TA2 transmitter line is available both with standard threaded process connections for standard applications, and the popular sanitary process connection, for applications in the food and beverage industries.

Finally, the TA2 temperature transmitters dramatically reduce response time. The standard fast response unit can react to 50% of the temperature change in less than 1.0 second, and just 3.0 seconds to 90%, while the ultrafast versions react in just 0.5 seconds and 1.0 seconds, respectively.

For more information on the IFM TA2, call TECO at 800-528-8997 or visit https://teco-inc.com.

Get Your Process Flow Meters Remanufactured Instead of Buying New

Remanufactured Flow Meters
Cutaway before and after of remanufactured flow meter.
Head scratcher. Why buy brand new flow meters when there are companies in the USA that have the trained technicians and facilities ready to remanufacture your old flow meters to a condition better than new?

Remanufactured flow meters meet or exceed all OEM specifications and performance standards. Here's how it works. Experienced technicians break down your flow meter to it's core components - flowtube, electronics, enclosure, flanges, and electrical. All parts are evaluated for wear and tear. All components are cleaned, primed, and painted. New electronics, flow sensors, liners, and electrical connections are installed. Once assembly is complete, the "remanufactured" flow meter goes through an exhaustive quality control process and is calibrated to NIST traceable standards using an advanced, state-of-the-art calibration facility.

remanufactured flow meter
Remanufactured flow meter.
All this is done very efficiently, quickly and cost-effectively.  You just ship your old instrument in to the attention of the "Repair Department". No RMA is required. The company evaluates your old flow meter and then generates a quote with delivery time for the remanufactured meter (normally within 48 hours).

Here is a summary of the benefits for choosing remanufacturing:
  • All brands of flow meters are candidates.
  • NIST traceable certificate is provided.
  • Obsolete flow meters are no problem.
  • No evaluation fees charged.
  • Accessories are included.
  • New warranty is given.
  • Failure analysis is provided.
  • Flow meters can be repurposed for severe service (enhanced during remanufacturing).
  • Remanufacturing is GREEN and environmentally friendly.
For more information, visit this flow meter remanufacturing link or call 800-528-8997.

What Are Vortex Shedding Flowmeters?

Example of Vortex Flowmeter
Vortex Shedding
Flowmeter (ABB)
Vortex shedding flowmeters are a type of flowmeter available to the process industry for the consistent evaluation of flow rates. These flowmeters measure the volumetric flow rate of media such as steam flowing in pipes, gases, and low viscosity liquids, boasting both versatility and dependability. Since they have no moving parts, they are virtually impervious to wear.
Diagram fo Vortices
Animation of vortex creation
(Cesareo de La Rosa Siqueira via Wikipedia)

Principles of Operation
Photograph of vortices
Photograph of vortices (credit Jürgen Wagner via Wikipedia)
A "shedder" bar (also known as a bluff body) in the path of the flowing fluid produces flow disturbances called vortices. The resulting vortex trail is predictable and proportional to the fluid flow rate. This phenomena is know as the "Von Kármán vortex street" (see illustrations to the right). Sensitive electronic sensors downstream of the shedder bar measures the frequency of the vortices and produce a small electrical pulse with every vortex created. The electrical pulses also also proportional to fluid velocity and is the basis for calculating a volumetric flow rate, using the cross sectional area of the flow measuring device.

Typical Areas of Use
Vortex shedding flowmeters are used on steam, cryogenic liquids, hydrocarbons, air, feed water, and industrial gases. 

Applications to Avoid
Splitting higher viscosity fluids into concordant vertices is extremely difficult due to the internal friction present, so using vortex shedding flowmeters on high viscosity media should be avoided. Also, avoid applications with low flow rates and low Reynolds Numbers, as the vortices created are unstable. 

Consideration for Use
Consideration must be given to applications with low Reynolds numbers, as the generation of vortices declines at critical points of reduced velocity. Low pressure can also be a problem in this regard. Users must take Reynolds number, velocity, and density into consideration before choosing a vortex shedding flow meter. As always, it's best to discuss your application with an knowledgable support professional before specifying, purchasing, or installing this type of flowmeter.

For more information on any type of industrial flowmeter, visit https://www.teco-inc.com or call 800-528-8997.

Understanding the Chemical Recovery Processes in Pulp & Paper Mills

chemical reclaim pulp and paper process
Figure 1
The kraft process is the dominant pulping process in the United States, accounting for approximately 85 percent of all domestic pulp production. The soda pulping process is similar to the kraft process, except that soda pulping is a non-sulfur process. One reason why the kraft process dominates the paper industry is because of the ability of the kraft chemical recovery process to recover approximately 95 percent of the pulping chemicals and at the same time produce energy in the form of steam. Other reasons for the dominance of the kraft process include its ability to handle a wide variety of wood species and the superior strength of its pulp.

The production of kraft and soda paper products from wood can be divided into three process areas:
  1. Pulping of wood chips
  2. Chemical recovery
  3. Product forming (includes bleaching)
The relationship of the chemical recovery cycle to the pulping and product forming processes is
chemical reclaim pulp and paper process
Figure 2
shown in Figure 1. Process flow diagrams of the chemical recovery area at kraft and soda pulp mills are shown in Figures 1 and 2, respectively.

The purpose of the chemical recovery cycle is to recover cooking liquor chemicals from spent
cooking liquor. The process involves concentrating black liquor, combusting organic compounds, reducing inorganic compounds, and reconstituting cooking liquor.

Cooking liquor, which is referred to as "white liquor, is an aqueous solution of sodium hydroxide (Na01) and sodium sulfide (Na2S) that is used in the pulping area of the mill. In the pulping process, white liquor is introduced with wood chips into digesters, where the wood chips are "cooked" under pressure. The contents of the digester are then discharged to a blow tank, where the softened chips are disintegrated into fibers or "pulp. The pulp and spent cooking liquor are subsequently separated in a series of brown stock washers: Spent cooking liquor, referred to as "weak black liquor, from the brown stock washers is routed to the chemical recovery area. Weak black liquor is a dilute solution (approximately 12 to 15 percent solids) of wood lignins, organic materials, oxidized inorganic compounds (sodium sulfate (Na2SO4), sodium carbonate (Na2003)), and white liquor (Na2S and Na0H).

In the chemical recovery cycle, weak black liquor is first directed through a series of multiple-effect evaporators (MEE's) to increase the solids content to about 50 percent. The "strong. (or "heavy") black liquor from the MEE's is then either oxidized in the BLO system if it is further concentrated in a DCE or routed directly to a concentrator (NDCE). Oxidation of the black liquor prior to evaporation in a DCE reduces emissions of TRS compounds, which are stripped from the black liquor in the DCE when it contacts hot flue gases from the recovery furnace. The solids content of the black liquor following the final evaporator/concentrator typically averages 65 to 68 percent.

Concentrated black liquor is sprayed into the recovery furnace, where organic compounds are combusted, and the Na2SO4 is reduced to Na2S. The black liquor burned in the recovery furnace has a high energy content (13,500 to 15,400 kilojoules per kilogram (kJ/kg) of dry solids (5,800 to 6,600 British thermal units per pound {Btu/lb} of dry solids)), which is recovered as steam for process requirements, such as cooking wood chips, heating and evaporating black liquor, preheating combustion air, and drying the pulp or paper products. Particulate matter (PM) (primarily Na2SO4) exiting the furnace with the hot flue gases is collected in an electrostatic precipitator (ESP) and added to the black liquor to be fired in the recovery furnace. Additional makeup Na2SO4, or "saltcake," may also be added to the black liquor prior to firing.

Molten inorganic salts, referred to as "smelt," collect in a char bed at the bottom of the furnace. Smelt is drawn off and dissolved in weak wash water in the SDT to form a solution of carbonate salts called "green liquor," which is primarily Na2S and Na2CO3. Green liquor also contains insoluble unburned carbon and inorganic Impurities, called dregs, which are removed in a series of clarification tanks.

Decanted green liquor is transferred to the causticizing area, where the Na2CO3 is converted to NaOH by the addition of lime (calcium oxide [Ca0]). The green liquor is first transferred to a slaker tank, where Ca0 from the lime kiln reacts with water to form calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2). From the slake, liquor flows through a series of agitated tanks, referred to as causticizers, that allow the causticizing reaction to go to completion (i.e., Ca(OH)2 reacts with Na2CO3 to form NaOH and CaCO3).

The causticizing product is then routed to the white liquor clarifier, which removes CaCO3 precipitate, referred to as "lime mud." The lime mud, along with dregs from the green liquor clarifier, is washed in the mud washer to remove the last traces of sodium. The mud from the mud washer is then dried and calcined in a lime kiln to produce "reburned" lime, which is reintroduced to the slaker. The mud washer filtrate, known as weak wash, is used in the SDT to dissolve recovery furnace smelt. The white liquor (NaOH and Na2S) from the clarifier is recycled to the digesters in the pulping area of the mill.

At about 7 percent of kraft mills, neutral sulfite semi-chemical (NSSC) pulping is also practiced. The NSSC process involves pulping wood chips in a solution of sodium sulfite and sodium bicarbonate, followed by mechanical de-fibrating. The NSSC and kraft processes often overlap in the chemical recovery loop, when the spent NSSC liquor, referred to as "pink liquor," is mixed with kraft black liquor and burned in the recovery furnace. In such cases, the NSSC chemicals replace most or all of the makeup chemicals. For Federal regulatory purposes, if the weight percentage of pink liquor solids exceeds 7 percent of the total mixture of solids fired and the sulfidity of the resultant green liquor exceeds 28 percent, the recovery furnace is classified as a "cross-recovery furnace.'" Because the pink liquor adds additional sulfur to the black liquor, TRS emissions from cross recovery furnaces tend to be higher than from straight kraft black liquor recovery furnaces.

With over 70 years experience, Thompson Equipment Company, Inc. (TECO) provides specialized instrumentation, magnetic flow meters, and re-manufactured process instruments used in the pulp and paper industry. For information on process control instruments, valves, or service or calibration, visit http://www.teco-inc.com or call 800-528-8997.

Consider Remanufactured Process Instrumentation as an Excellent Alternative to Buying New

As the world's largest remanufacturer of magnetic flow meters, TECO has the experience, trained technicians and facilities to remanufacture flanged and wafer mags to meet or exceed all OEM specifications and performance standards.

You will typically have a quotation and failure analysis in your hands by fax/email within 48 hours from the time your instruments arrive on our receiving dock. You will know your instruments are here, you will know what the price and lead time will be, and you can make a timely, informed decision. Send your business to TECO. We make it our job to help you succeed!
  • All Brands
  • NIST Traceable Certificate
  • Off-the-Shelf Meters Available
  • Obsolete Meters our Specialty
  • No Evaluation Charges
  • Magmeter Customization Services
  • All Magmeter accessories
  • New Warranty
  • Failure Analysis
  • Severe Application Meters
  • Converter/Transmitter Repairs
  • Remanufacturing is GREEN

Introduction to Transmitters used in Process Control

Flow transmitter
Flow transmitter (ModMag)
Transmitters are process control field devices. They receive input from a connected process sensor, then convert the sensor signal to an output signal using a transmission protocol. The output signal is passed to a monitoring, control, or decision device for use in documenting, regulating, or monitoring a process or operation.

In general, transmitters accomplish three steps, including converting the initial signal twice. The first step is the initial conversion which alters the input signal to make it linear. After an amplification of the converted signal, the second conversion changes the signal into either a standard electrical or pneumatic output signal that can be utilized by receiving instruments and devices. The third and final step is the actual output of the electrical or pneumatic signal to utilization equipment - controllers, PLC, recorder, etc.

Transmitters are available for almost every measured parameter in process control, and are often referred to according to the process condition which they measure. Some examples.

  • Pressure transmitters
  • Temperature transmitters
  • Flow transmitters
  • Level transmitters
  • Vibration transmitters
  • Current, voltage & power transmitters
  • PH, conductivity, dissolved gas transmitters, etc. 
  • Consistency

Consistency Transmitter
Consistency Transmitter(TECO)
Output signals from transmitters, when electrical, often are either voltage (1-5 or 2-10 volts DC) or current (4-20 mA). Power requirements can vary among products, but are often 110/220 VAC or 24 VDC.  Low power consumption by electrical transmitters can permit some units to be "loop powered", operating from the voltage applied to the output current loop. These devices are also called "two-wire transmitters" because only two conductors are connected to the unit. Unlike the two wire system which only needs two wires to power the transmitter and carry the analog signal output, the four-wire system requires four separate conductors, with one pair serving as the power supply to the unit and a separate pair providing the output signal path. Pneumatic transmitters, while still in use, are continuously being supplanted by electrical units that provide adequate levels of safety and functionality in environments previously only served by pneumatic units.

Pressure Transmitter
Pressure
Transmitter
(ifm)
Many transmitters are provided with higher order functions in addition to merely converting an input signal to an output signal. On board displays, keypads, Bluetooth connectivity, and a host of industry standard communication protocols can also be had as an integral part of many process transmitters. Other functions that provide alarm or safety action are more frequently part of the transmitter package, as well.

Wireless transmitters are also available, with some operating from battery power and negating the need for any wired connection at all. Process transmitters have evolved from simple signal conversion devices to higher functioning, efficient, easy to apply and maintain instruments utilized for providing input to process control systems.

To lean more about instrumentation and control, visit http://www.teco-inc.com or call Thompson Equipment at 800-528-8997.

Basics of Process Piping: Piping & Instrument Diagrams

P&ID's (piping & instrumentation diagrams), or Process and Control Flow Diagrams, are schematic representations of a process control system and used to illustrate the piping system, process flow, installed equipment, and process instrumentation and functional relationships therein.

P&ID’s can be very detailed and are generally the primary source from where instrument and equipment lists are generated and are very handy reference for maintenance and upgrades. P&ID’s also play an important early role in safety planning through a better understanding of the operability and relationships of all components in the system.

Intended to provide a “picture” of all of piping including the physical branches, valves, equipment, instrumentation and interlocks. The P&ID uses a set of standard symbols representing each component of the system such as instruments, piping, motors, pumps, etc.

For more information on any process instrument question or requirement, feel free to contact the application engineers at Thompson Equipment. For immediate service call 800-528-8997

The Operating Principles of a Magnetic Flowmeter

Below is a video, courtesy of Badger Meter, illustrating the operating principles of magnetic flowmeters (also known as magmeters).

A magnetic field is applied to the flow tube, resulting in an EMF proportional to the flow velocity passing perpendicular to the magnetic flux lines. The physical principle at work is Faraday's law of electromagnetic induction.

Magnetic flow meter requires a conductive fluid, and electrically insulated internal pipe surfaces to operate.

Advantages:
  • Low maintenance cost
  • No moving parts
  • Good for slurry
  • Good for corrosive fluids
  • Very linear
  • Minimal flow restriction

Disadvantages:
  • Requires electrically conductive fluids
For more information on magmeters, visit TECO at http://www.teco-inc.com of call 800-528-8997.

Before and After Examples of Instrument and Flow Meter Repair & Remanufacture

See the dramatic change of flowmeters and instruments before and after the TECO repair and remanufactured process.

Stop Spending Money on Process Instruments Unnecessarily

restore process instruments
Restore process instruments
to "better than new".
Millions of dollars each year are spent unnecessarily throwing away old flowmeters and process instruments. Companies aren't aware of a cost-effective alternative that doesn't impact product performance or quality. That alternative is "remanufacturing" - a process that restores process instrumentation to factory specifications and many times provide a "better than new" instrument - at a fraction of the cost of buying new.

TECO, based in New Orleans, established a strong reputation and very loyal customer base becoming the world's largest "remanufacturer" of flowmeters and many other types of process instruments.

Their business model and process is unique and elegantly simple. You send your flowmeter or instrument to TECO along with your contact information. Within 48 hours, TECO diagnoses the overall condition and outlines the problems with your device, and provides a quote for the restoration. If unrepairable, they quote a stock "remanufactured" direct replacement. If they can't restore, or provide a remanufactured unit from stock, they will competitively quote a new replacement.

Their repair / restoration process is top-notch. Experienced TECO technicians tear down the item and begin rebuilding it from the ground up. Parts are disassembled, cleaned, sandblasted, painted, and re-assembled. Electronics are repaired or replaced and then fully tested to factory specifications. The unit then goes through a NIST traceable calibration from a ISO/IEC accredited lab and all documentation is recorded and provided.

Check out this light-hearted, 3 minute presentation on the virtues of TECO remanufacturing and repair services.

Consider Flowmeter & Instrument Remanufacturing as a Viable Alternative to New

instrument remanufacture
Example of instrument
remanufacture
Many companies don't realize that when you have a failed magnetic flowmeter or mass flowmeter, it's often more cost-effective and efficient to have them restored to mint condition than it is to replace them with new units.

But if you send meters to the original manufacturer, they can disappear into their system for weeks or months. And you have no idea how long it will really take, or if it will fail again later from undetected problems.

magmeter remanufacture
Example of mag meter
remanufacture
The fact is you can't afford the loss of productivity or downtime. But what if there were a place you could send broken flowmeters that could save you money and time by restoring them to pristine condition. A cost-effective specialist who could guarantee rapid turnaround time and premium customer service. A team of experienced professionals with the capabilities to keep equipment in service, even if it's no longer supported by others.

For a proven partner like this, there's only TECO. Established in 1947, TECO has become the global leader in restoration and customization of magnetic flow meters, Coriolis meters, and other process control instruments. At TECO, they understand that time is money, which is why they provide the fastest turnaround time in the industry. TECO doesn't simply repair a broken part in return it, they do a full restoration and back the whole meter with a full warranty.
massmeter remanufacture
Example of mass flowmeter
remanufacture

TECO quality control includes NIST traceable flow calibration, which is often required by regulatory agencies and ISO 9000 standards.  TECO also provides independent calibration to serve your preventative maintenance and metrology needs. While their low-cost, high-quality work has made TECO the industry leader, it's their commitment to premium customer service that keeps their clients loyal. Extensive capabilities combined with a focus on service also means TECO can manufacture custom flowmeter solutions to meet the demands of severe applications.

  • Low cost, rapid restoration of magnetic flowmeters, mass flowmeters and other instruments
  • Pristine, like-new equipment
  • Backed with the full warranty
  • Customized solutions and expert customer service you can trust
It's all part of the package with TECO.

If you have failed magnetic flowmeters, Coriolis meters or other instruments, call TECO. After receiving your equipment, we'll turn around a quote in 48 hours or less. No return authorization required. To develop a customized solution for your your toughest application, contact TECO.